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Bartender 3 not working mojave free


When SolarReserve was founded, it seemed a molten salt plant with a field of heliostats and a central tower could produce power at a price competitive with, if not cheaper than, a large solar PV plant.

But right away, the price of PV panels began to drop. The cost of a kilowatt-hour of electricity from a utility-scale solar farm, averaged over the life of the facility, has plunged from 28 cents in to under 6 cents , according to the U. Department of Energy. The company put together several solar PV plants as the prices dropped.

This helped to bring in some cash, Smith said. But the main focus remained on molten salt towers. It was completed in , about two years behind schedule. The construction expenses have been cut nearly in half for the projects now in the pipeline, Smith said.

Smith and Gould—and other observers—will tell you that Crescent Dunes, in its first two years, has been plagued by problems. The biggest problem by far at Crescent Dunes was a leak in the hot salt storage tank discovered in late Smith explains that a giant ring, resting on pylons on the bottom of the tank, distributes the molten salt as it comes down from the receiver.

While the pylons were supposed to be welded to the floor, the ring itself was designed to move as changes in temperature cause expansion or contraction. Instead, due to a construction error, it was all welded together, and temperature changes caused the bottom of the tank to buckle and leak.

Leaking molten salt is not particularly dangerous. When it hit the gravel bed under the tank and immediately cooled, it turned to—salt. Still, the shutdown lasted months, and the plant only got back on the grid in July. Crescent Dunes is supposed to be able to generate some , MWh of electricity per year, the equivalent of operating about 12 hours a day. Smith argues that the facility is running well now and will meet that target.

Several different approaches to CSP have been pursued over the years. Most CSP projects are in the U. The technology most commonly deployed is parabolic trough, a system that uses curved mirrors that move on a single axis to track the sun. Sunlight is concentrated on a pipe filled with oil at the focal point of the parabolic mirror. The oil, which can reach around degrees Fahrenheit, is used to make steam to run a turbine. This process is less efficient than storage using a CSP tower, however, because of the lower temperatures.

Parabolic trough projects can be appropriate in some locations, according to Sergio Relloso of the solar business unit at Sener, the Spanish engineering company. Sener has built more than two dozen CSP trough projects. Right now, the company is constructing two plants in Ouarzazate, Morocco.

The power price for the output of the two Moroccan plants is very close, Relloso said. The other significant type of CSP plant uses a central tower and heliostats to heat steam instead of salt.

These plants look similar to Crescent Dunes, but there is no storage; the steam has to be used in the turbine immediately. The developer of the Ivanpah project, BrightSource Energy, said in an email that its technology, centered on solar field design and heliostat optimization, can also be applied to molten salt plants.

The company has projects with molten salt storage in development in China. SolarReserve has always pitched storage as its edge. Smith said utility officials and policymakers would respond that storage was important, that they wanted more.

Renewable portfolio standards and other legislative and regulatory requirements pushed utilities to add wind and solar power but provided little incentive to favor generation that would run when the grid most needed the electricity. Skins Styles Utility.

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Play Sound. Over one hundred men and women gave their lives on the Nevada soil to defend local civilians and the principles of the republic. May this humble stone be an enduring memorial to their valor and sacrifice. Remains of the town after the First Battle of Hoover Dam. It is a minor location, mostly notable for its proximity to Hoover Dam [3. It’s a common resting spot for people on their way to New Vegas and for troops moving to and from the dam. The Rangers lured some of the toughest veteran Legionaries into the town and blew it to pieces with explosives that had been strategically placed ahead of time.

War Memorial A slab of limestone carved with the names of those who gave their lives during the first Battle of Hoover Dam. Private Kowalski is paying his respects here. The town was set up as a trap for Caesar’s Legion.

The sharpshooters in the Rangers picked off the Legion’s veterans from a distance, and the rest of the Legion just rushed on in. Then – boom! From what I’ve heard, it’s a little late for that. Travelers over at the – just up the road – said that the Legion has overrun a couple of towns to the south.

With no work to be had, all the workers around here have wandered off. I’m the only one left in town.

Fallout: New Vegas locations. During the s, American farms were mostly self-sufficient, but certain staples like salt , coffee , sugar , and baking soda would be purchased at the town general store. If the family didn’t grow wheat , then flour would also be purchased. Another luxury was canned salmon , which was sometimes eaten for Sunday dinner.

Items purchased at the general store would be paid for with eggs, butter or some other food from the farm. Women were responsible for much of the processing of food like straining fresh milk, churning butter, making molasses from sorghum , grinding corn into cornmeal or cleaning whole chickens.

Fresh picked apples were pressed into cider , which could be fermented to make apple cider vinegar. Fruits and vegetables were preserved by various means like canning, drying or pickling. One contemporary writer from Michigan described October as cider season, when apple butter would be made. Her writings mention johnnycakes , and, as winter fare, buckwheat cakes.

Typical farmhouse fare included fried chicken, simmered green beans , boiled corn, chicken and dumplings , fried ham , boiled beans and beets , stewed tomatoes , potatoes, and coleslaw made of shredded cabbage.

Pon haus , similar to the scrapple of the Pennsylvania Dutch , was a typical breakfast dish among the Germans who had settled Indiana in the 19th century.

Pork scraps and corn meal were cooked into a thick porridge and molded in loaf pans. Once solidified, the mixture would be cut and fried. During the fall months, pork might be replaced with fried apples or potatoes. It was served with buttered biscuits , jam, jelly, milk gravy or sorghum syrup.

Fruit butter might be made from apples, plums or peaches to accompany the meal. Jane Pride, New York Herald. Pork was a staple of the rural diet through the Southern and Midwestern United States.

Lard was used for baking, frying and even as a seasoning. The cookware of the period was made of cast iron and these were thoroughly seasoned with pork fat.

Fried salt pork with gravy was an indulgent fat-laden dish often served with a side of boiled potatoes. In the Appalachian region a dish called “killed lettuce” was made with pokeweed , dandelion and assorted wild greens that were drizzled with hot bacon grease until wilted or “killed”.

Pie could be served up to three times a day and many varieties were prepared depending on the season. During the spring months, pies would be made of rhubarb and strawberry ; in summer peach , cherry , blackberry , blueberry , elderberry and grape ; and in fall apple. The staples of the urban diet were bread, dairy and canned goods. Dinner might be tomato bisque from a can topped with cream or a salad made of canned string beans and mayonnaise.

Many preferred to purchase food at delicatessens , rather than attempt to prepare meals in the cramped kitchenettes. German delicatessens in cities like New York and Milwaukee sold imported cold cuts, potato salads , schmierkase , wienerwurst , North Sea herring , assorted pickles pickled cucumber and other prepared foods.

Jewish immigrants from Germany soon followed suit, replacing pork dishes with corned beef salt-cured beef and pastrami. Ice cream soda was served at soda fountains, along with various other early “soda water” recipes like the Garden Sass Sundae rhubarb or the Oh-Oh-Cindy Sundae strawberry ice cream topped with chocolate syrup, chopped nuts, whipped cream and candied cherries. During that same time frame, grain-feeding of cattle during low pasture months made milk increasingly available year-round.

The invention of milking machines lowered production costs. Pasteurization , homogenization , evaporation , condensation , and refrigeration along with glass milk bottles, wax-paper cartons, and then plastic bottles made milk increasingly available and safe for urban consumers. Milk became a staple food item and an increasingly important ingredient in American cuisine. Examples include the root beer float and the milkshake. Major railroads featured upscale cuisine in their dining cars.

Fast-food restaurants with standardized product and franchised service models began to appear and spread with the development of the highway system. White Castle was one of the first examples.

At the universities, nutritionists and home economists taught a new scientific approach to food. In the early s muckraking journalists raised public concern about the wholesomeness of industrialized food products that contained various preservatives and adulterants of unknown safety.

From to Harvey Washington Wiley , a chemist at the U. Department of Agriculture , supervised “hygienic table trials” to test the safety of food additives and preservatives. His work contributed to the enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of During World War I the Progressives ‘ moral advice about food conservation was emphasized in large-scale state and federal programs designed to educate housewives.

Large-scale foreign aid during and after the war brought American standards to Europe. From to the end of the s researchers discovered and popularized the role of various vitamins and minerals in human health. Starting with iodized salt in , commercially distributed food began to be fortified with vitamins and minerals.

In , milk began to be fortified with viosterol , a purified vitamin D2 product. Synthetic thiamin vitamin B1 first became available after and bakers began voluntarily enriching bread with high-vitamin yeast or synthetic vitamins in the late s.

In George Stigler published an article on “The cost of subsistence” which described the so-called Stigler diet , his solution to the problem of providing a diet that met the RDA at a minimum cost. The logistical requirements of the US military during WW2 and the Korean War spurred the development and growth of the processed foods industry in the US. Examples include powdered milk , powdered eggs , potato flakes , and frozen concentrated orange juice. After the war, low-cost, highly processed foods became one of the foundational elements of an era of mass prosperity.

Newspapers and magazines ran recipe columns, aided by research from corporate kitchens, which were major food manufacturers like General Mills , Campbell’s , and Kraft Foods. For example, the General Mills Betty Crocker’s Cookbook , first published in , was a popular book in American homes.

Highly processed foods of the midth century included novelty elements like multi-colored Jell-O using various chemical food colorings , prepared breakfast cereals marketed to children with large amounts of sugar and artificial colors e. Froot Loops. Tang , Hi-C. Midth-century foods also added novelty packaging elements like spray cheese in an aerosol can , pimento -stuffed olives, and drink pouches.

The development of the microwave oven resulted in the creation of industrial food products and packaging intended to take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the unique challenges of that technology. Throughout the second half of the 20th century the US commercial food system has become increasingly dependent on subsidized maize corn production to provide feed for livestock and ingredients for human foods such as high-fructose corn syrup.

One signature characteristic of American cooking is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into completely new cooking styles. For example, spaghetti is Italian , while hot dogs are German ; a popular meal, especially among young children, is spaghetti containing slices of hot dogs. Some dishes that are typically considered American have their origins in other countries. American cooks and chefs have substantially altered these dishes over the years, to the degree that the dishes now enjoyed around the world are considered to be American.

Hot dogs and hamburgers are both based on traditional German dishes, but in their modern popular form they can be reasonably considered American dishes. Pizza is based on the traditional Italian dish, brought by Italian immigrants to the United States, but varies highly in style based on the region of development since its arrival.

For example, Chicago style has focus on a thicker, taller crust, whereas a ” New York Slice ” is known to have a much thinner crust which can be folded. These different types of pizza can be advertised throughout the country and are generally recognizable and well-known, with some restaurants going so far as to import New York tap water from a thousand or more miles away to recreate the signature style in other regions.

The fortune cookie was likewise invented in California in the early s and is known in Asia only as an American style food. A wave of celebrity chefs began with Julia Child and Graham Kerr in the s, with many more following after the rise of cable channels like Food Network. By the beginning of the 21st century, regional variations in consumption of meat began to reduce, as more meat was consumed overall.

During the s, upscale restaurants introduced a mixing of cuisines that contain Americanized styles of cooking with foreign elements commonly referred as New American cuisine , [88] a type of fusion cuisine combining flavors from the melting pot of traditional American cooking techniques with those from other cultures, sometimes adding molecular gastronomy components.

In the 21st century, more people in America were eating vegan and vegetarian meals and more restaurants were serving them. In the present day, the modern cuisine of the United States is very regional in nature.

Excluding Alaska and Hawaii , the terrain spans 3, miles 4, km from east to west and more than 1, miles 1, km from north to south.

It includes the six states of Connecticut , Maine , Massachusetts , New Hampshire , Rhode Island , and Vermont , with its largest city and cultural capital Boston , founded in New England cuisine traces its roots to English cuisine and Native American cuisine of the Abenaki , Narragansett , Niantic , Wabanaki , Wampanoag , and other native peoples.

It also includes influences from French , Italian , and Portuguese cuisine, among others. It is characterized by extensive use of potatoes , beans , dairy products and seafood. Corn , the major crop historically grown by Native American tribes in New England, continues to be grown in all New England states, primarily as sweet corn although flint corn is grown, too. Three prominent characteristic foodstuffs native to New England are maple syrup , cranberries and blueberries.

Maine is the only state with a commercial wild blueberry industry, where growers harvested million pounds in New England forests before the Pilgrims arrived were full of nuts like the shagbark hickory , American hazel , and American chestnuts and fruits like wild grapes and black cherries.

Most of the initial colonists came from East Anglia in England, with other groups following them over the ages like francophone regions of Canada this was especially true of Northern New England, where there are still many speakers of a dialect of French , from Ireland, from Southern Italy, and most recently from Haiti, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Portugal.

The oldest forms of the cuisine date to the early 17th century and in the case of Massachusetts, out of the entire country only the state of Virginia can claim recipes that are older.

East Anglian cookery would have included recipes for dishes like suet puddings, wheaten breads, and a few shellfish delicacies, like winkles, and would have been at the time of settlement simple Puritan fare quite in contrast to the fineries and excesses expected in London cavalier circles. Most of the cuisine started with one-pot cookery, which resulted in such dishes as succotash , chowder , baked beans , and others.

Starches encompass just a handful of classics like potatoes and cornmeal , and a few native breads like Anadama bread , Graham bread , johnnycakes , bulkie rolls , Parker house rolls , popovers , ployes , and New England brown bread. Because of the influence of New Englander health reformers, the most well known of whom is Sylvester Graham , this region is fairly conservative with its spices, but typical spices include nutmeg , ginger , cinnamon , cloves , and allspice , especially in desserts, and for savory foods, thyme , black pepper , sea salt , and sage.

Typical condiments include maple syrup , grown from the native sugar maple , molasses , and cranberry sauce. The fruits of the region include the Vitis labrusca grapes used in grape juice made by companies such as Welch’s , along with jelly , Kosher wine by companies like Mogen David and Manischewitz along with other wineries that make higher quality wines.

Though not anywhere near as productive a region as the top three apple-producing regions, apples have been a staple of New England foodways since at least the s, and it is here that a very high amount of heirloom varieties are found, many of them gaining renewed interest as part of locavore movements and the re-emergence of cider as a beverage of choice.

Beach plums a small native species with fruits the size of a pinball, are sought after in summer to make into a jam. Cranberries are another fruit indigenous to the region, often collected in autumn in huge flooded bogs. Thereafter they are juiced so they can be drunk fresh for breakfast, or dried and incorporated into salads and quickbreads.

Winter squashes like pumpkin and butternut squashes have been a staple for generations owing to their ability to keep for long periods over icy New England winters and being an excellent source of beta carotene; in summer, they are replaced with pattypan and zucchini, the latter brought to the region by immigrants from Southern Italy a century ago. Blueberries are a very common summertime treat owing to them being an important crop, and find their way into muffins , pies and pancakes.

Historically New England and the other original 13 colonies were major producers of hard cider and the only reason why this changed were that immigrants from Western and Central Europe preferred beer, especially lagers, to apple based alcohol.

In more recent years cider has made a roaring comeback nationwide, with New England being the first to break out of the box and with many pomologists scouring the woods for abandoned apple trees and heirloom varieties to add to the cider press.

Angry Orchard is a local commercial brand that began in New Hampshire but has since skyrocketed in sales, with other large marques following suit around the land. Typical favorite desserts are quite diverse, and encompass hasty pudding , blueberry pie , whoopie pies , Boston cream pie , pumpkin pie , Joe Frogger cookies, hand-crafted ice cream , Hermit cookies, and the chocolate chip cookie , invented in Massachusetts in the s.

New England is noted for having a heavy emphasis on seafood, a legacy inherited from coastal tribes like the Wampanoag and Narragansett , who equally used the rich fishing banks offshore for sustenance. Favorite fish include cod , salmon , winter flounder , haddock , striped bass , pollock , hake , bluefish , and, in southern New England, tautog.

All of these are prepared numerous ways, such as frying cod for fish fingers , grilling bluefish over hot coals for summertime, smoking salmon or serving a whole poached one chilled for feasts with a dill sauce, or, on cold winter nights, serving haddock baked in casserole dish with a creamy sauce and crumbled breadcrumbs as a top so it forms a crust.

Also, a hard shell clam is unique to Rhode Island called the Quahoag which is used in clear chowders. Farther inland, brook trout , largemouth bass , and herring are sought after, especially in the rivers and icy finger lakes in upper New England where New Englanders will fly fish for them in summertime.

Today turkey meat is a key ingredient in soups, and also a favorite in several sandwiches like the Pilgrim. For lunch, hot roast beef is sometimes chopped finely into small pieces and put on a roll with salami and American or provolone cheese to make a steak bomb. Vermont is known for producing farmhouse style cheeses, especially a type of cheddar.

Crustaceans and mollusks are also an essential ingredient in the regional cookery. They even appear on the menu as far south as to be out of region in New York , where they are sold to four star restaurants in the form of cocktail claws.

Whelks are eaten in salad, and lobster , which is indigenous to the coastal waters of the region and are a feature of many dishes, baked, boiled, roasted, and steamed, or simply eaten as a sandwich , chilled with mayonnaise and chopped celery in Maine and Massachusetts, or slathered with melted butter on Long Island and in Connecticut.

Shellfish of all sorts are part of the diet, and shellfish of the coastal regions include little neck clams , sea scallops , blue mussels , oysters , soft shell clams , and razor shell clams. Much of this shellfish contributes to New England tradition, the clambake. The clambake as known today is a colonial interpretation of an American Indian tradition.

In summer, oysters and clams are dipped in batter and fried, often served in a basket with french fries, or commonly on a wheaten bun as a clam roll. Oysters are otherwise eaten chilled on a bed of crushed ice on the half shell with mignonette sauce , and are often branded on where they were harvested. Large quahogs are stuffed with breadcrumbs and seasoning and baked in their shells, and smaller ones often find their way into clam chowder.

Other preparations include clams casino , clams on the half shell served stuffed with herbs like oregano and streaky bacon. Southern New England, particularly along the coast, shares many specialties with the Mid-Atlantic, including especially dishes from Jewish and Italian-American cuisine. Coastal Connecticut is known for distinctive kinds of pizza , locally called apizza pronounced locally as abeetz , differing in texture thin and slightly blackened and toppings such as clams from pizza further south in the so-called pizza belt, which stretches from New Haven, Connecticut southward through New York , New Jersey , and into Maryland.

The oldest major settlement in this area of the country is found in the most populous city in the nation, New York , founded in by the Dutch. Today, it is a major cultural capital of the United States. The influences on cuisine in this region are extremely eclectic owing to the fact that it has been and continues to be a gateway for international culture as well as a gateway for new immigrants.

In addition, cities like New York and Philadelphia have had the past influence of Dutch, [] Italian, German, [] Irish, [] [] British, [] and Jewish cuisines, [] and that continues to this day.

Baltimore has become the crossroads between North and South, a distinction it has held since the end of the Civil War. A global power city , [] New York is well known for its diverse and cosmopolitan dining scene. Many of the more complicated dishes with rich ingredients like Lobster Newberg , waldorf salad , vichyssoise , eggs benedict , and the New York strip steak were born out of a need to entertain and impress the well-to-do in expensive bygone restaurants like Delmonico’s and still standing establishments like the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel.

Since the first reference to an alcoholic mixed drink called a cocktail comes from New York State in , it is not a surprise that there have been many cocktails invented in New York and the surrounding environs.

Even today New York bars are noted for being highly influential in making national trends. Cosmopolitans , Long Island iced teas , Manhattans , Rob Roys , Tom Collins , Aviations , and Greyhounds were all invented in New York bars, and the gin martini was popularized in New York in speakeasies during the s, as evidenced by its appearance in the works of New Yorker and American writer F.

Scott Fitzgerald. Like its neighbor Philadelphia , many rare and unusual liquors and liqueurs often find their way into a mixologist’s cupboard or restaurant wine list. New York State is the third most productive area in the country for wine grapes, just behind California and Washington.

It has AVA ‘s near the Finger Lakes, the Catskills, and Long Island, [] and in the Hudson Valley has the second-most productive area in the country for growing apples, making it a center for hard cider production, just like New England. Since their formative years, New York , Philadelphia , and Baltimore have welcomed immigrants of every kind to their shores, and all three have been an important gateway through which new citizens to the general United States arrive.

Even in colonial days this region was a very diverse mosaic of peoples, as settlers from Switzerland, Wales, England, Ulster, Wallonia, Holland, Gelderland, the British Channel Islands, and Sweden sought their fortune in this region. The original Dutch settlers of New York brought recipes they knew and understood from the Netherlands and their mark on local cuisine is still apparent today: in many quarters of New York their version of apple pie with a streusel top is still baked.

In the colony of New Amsterdam, their predilection for waffles in time evolved into the American national recipe and forms part of a New York brunch.

They also made coleslaw , originally a Dutch salad, but today accented with the later 18th-century introduction of mayonnaise. Crab cakes were once a kind of English croquette , but over time as spices have been added they and the Maryland crab feast became two of Baltimore’s signature dishes. Fishing for blue crab is a favorite summer pastime in the waters off Maryland , New Jersey , and Delaware where they may grace the table at summer picnics. Other mainstays of the region have been present since the early years of American history, like oysters from Cape May , the Chesapeake Bay , and Long Island , and lobster and tuna from the coastal waters found in New York and New Jersey.

In the winter, New York pushcarts sell roasted chestnuts , a delicacy dating back to English Christmas traditions , [] and it was in New York and Pennsylvania that the earliest Christmas cookies were introduced: Germans introduced crunchy molasses-based gingerbread and sugar cookies in Pennsylvania, and the Dutch introduced cinnamon-based cookies, all of which have become part of the traditional Christmas meal.

Scrapple was originally a type of savory pudding that early Pennsylvania Germans made to preserve the offal of a pig slaughter. After the s, new groups began to arrive and the character of the region began to change. There had been some Irish from Ulster prior to , however largely they had been Protestants with somewhat different culture and often a different language than the explosion of emigrants that came to Castle Garden and Locust Point in Baltimore in their masses starting in the s.

The Irish arrived in America in a rather woeful state, as Ireland at the time was often plagued by some of the worst poverty in Europe and often heavy disenfranchisement among the masses.

Many of them arrived barely alive having ridden coffin ships to the New World, very sick with typhus and gaunt from prolonged starvation. In addition, they were the first to face challenges other groups did not have: they were the first large wave of Catholics. They faced prejudice for their faith and the cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Baltimore were not always set up for their needs. For example, Catholic bishops in the U. Unsurprisingly, many Irishmen also found their fortunes working as longshoremen, which would have given their families access to fish and shellfish whenever a fisherman made berth, which was frequent on the busy docks of Baltimore and New York.

Though there had been some activity in Baltimore in founding a see earlier by the Carrolls , the Irish were the first major wave of Catholic worship in this region, and that meant bishops and cardinals sending away to Europe for wine. Wine, with water, is consecrated as part of the Catholic Mass.

Taverns had existed prior to their emigration to America in the region, though the Irish brought their particular brand of pub culture and founded some of the first saloons and bars that served Dublin style stout and red ale ; they brought with them the knowledge of single-malt style whiskey and sold it. The Irish were the first immigrant group to arrive in this region in massive millions, and these immigrants also founded some of the earliest saloons and bars in this region, of which McSorley’s is a still operating example.

It was also in this region that the Irish introduced something that today is a very important festival in American culture that involves a large amount of food, drink, and merry making: Halloween. In England and Wales, where prior immigrants had come from, the feast of All Hallows Eve had died out in the Reformation , dismissed as superstition and excess having nothing to do with the Bible and often replaced with the festival of Guy Fawkes Night.

Other immigrant groups like the Germans preferred to celebrate October 31 as Reformation Day , and after the American Revolution all of the above were less and less eager to celebrate the legacy of an English festival given they had fought against Great Britain for their independence. The Catholicism of the Irish demanded attendance at church on November 1 and charity and deeds, not just faith, as a cornerstone of dogma, and many of their older traditions survived the Reformation and traveled with them.

Naturally, they went door-to-door to collect victuals for masked parties as well as gave them out, like nuts to roast on the fire, whiskey, beer, or cider, and barmbracks ; they also bobbed for apples and made dumb cakes. Later in the century they were joined by Scots going guising , children going door-to-door to ask for sweets and treats in costume.

From the Mid-Atlantic this trend spread to be nationwide and evolved into American children trick-or-treating on October 31 wearing costumes and their older counterparts having wild costume parties with various foods and drinks such as caramel apples , candy apples , dirt cakes , punch , cocktails , cider both alcoholic and non , pumpkin pie , candy corn , chocolate turtles , peanut brittle , taffy , tipsy cake , and copious buckets full of candy; children carving jack-o-lanterns and eating squash derived foods derive from Halloween’s heritage as a harvest festival and from Irish and Scottish traditions of carving turnips and eating root vegetables at this time of year.

Bobbing for apples has survived to the present day as a Halloween party classic game, as has a variation on the parlor game of trying to grab an apple hanging from the ceiling blindfolded: [] it has evolved into trying to catch a donut in one’s teeth. Typically none of them spoke English, but rather dialects of Italian and had a culture that was more closely tied to the village they were born in than the high culture only accessible to those who could afford it at this time; many could not read or write in any language.

They were employed in manual labor or factory work but it is because of them that dishes like spaghetti with meatballs , New York-style pizza , calzones , and baked ziti exist, and Americans of today are very familiar with semolina based pasta noodles.

Their native cuisine had less of an emphasis on meat, as evidenced by dishes they introduced like pasta e fagioli and minestrone , but the dishes they created in America often piled it on as a sign of wealth and newfound prosperity since for the first time even cheap cuts of it were affordable.

The American recipe for lasagna is proof of this, as mostly it is derived from the Neapolitan version of the dish with large amounts of meat and cheese. New York-style hot dogs came about with German-speaking emigrants from Austria and Germany, particularly with the frankfurter sausage and the smaller wiener sausage ; Jews would also contribute here by introducing the kosher version of these sausages, made of beef rather than pork.

Hot dogs are a typical street food sold year round in all but the most inclement weather from thousands of pushcarts. As with all other stadiums in Major League Baseball they are an essential for New York Yankees and the New York Mets games though it is the local style of preparation that predominates without exception. Hot dogs are also the focus of a televised eating contest on the Fourth of July in Coney Island , [] at Nathan’s Famous , one of the earliest hot dog stands opened in the United States in by Nathan Handwerker.

Handwerker was a Jewish man who emigrated from what is now Ukraine in and whose influence is felt today around the world. Coney Island is most famous for being a traditional boardwalk amusement park and the site of the world’s first rollercoaster, a precursor of modern theme parks. Hot dogs are a staple of amusement parks years later. A summertime treat, Italian ice , began its life as a sweeter adaptation of the Sicilian granita that was strictly lemon-flavored and brought to New York and Philadelphia.

Its Hispanic counterpart, piragua , is a common shaved-ice treat brought to New York by Puerto Ricans in the s.

Unlike the original dish which included flavors like tamarind, mango, coconut, piragua is evolving to include flavors like grape and cherry, fruits which are impossible to grow in the tropical Puerto Rican climate and get exported back to the island from New York.

Taylor Ham , a meat delicacy of New Jersey , first appeared around the time of the Civil War and today is often served for breakfast with eggs and cheese on a kaiser roll , a variant of a roll brought to the area by Austrians in the second half of the 19th century, now commonly used for sandwiches at lunchtime, often topped with poppyseeds.

Other dishes came about during the early 20th century and have much to do with delicatessen fare, set up largely by Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe who came to America incredibly poor, often illiterate in any other language but Yiddish , and often banished from mainstream society in their place of origin for centuries.

Most often they were completely unable to partake in the outdoor food markets that the general population utilized as most of the food for sale was not kosher. The influence of European Jewry before their destruction in the Holocaust on modern mid-Atlantic cooking remains strong and reinforced by their many descendants in the region.

American-style pickles , now a common addition to hamburgers and sandwiches, were brought by Polish Jews, [] and Austro-Hungarian Jews brought a recipe for almond horns that now is a common regional cookie, diverting from the original recipe in dipping the ends in dark chocolate.

New York-style cheesecake has copious amounts of cream and eggs because animal rennet is not kosher and so could not be sold to a large number of the deli’s clientele. New York inherited its bagels and bialys from Jews, as well as Challah bread. Pastrami first entered the country via Romanian Jews, and is a feature of many sandwiches, often eaten on marble rye, a bread that was born in [ clarification needed ] the mid-Atlantic.

Whitefish salad , lox , and matzoh ball soup are now standard fare made to order at local diners and delicatessens, but started their life as foods that made up a strict dietary code. Rugelach cookies and hamentashen are sweet staples still sold to the general public, but came to New York over a century ago with Ashkenazi Jews along with Jewish rye. Many of their dishes passed into the mainstream enough that they became standard fare in diners by the end of the 20th century, a type of restaurant that is now the most common in the region, and the subject matter of the artist Edward Hopper.

In the past this sort of establishment was the haven of the short-order cook grilling or frying simple foods for the working man.

Today typical service includes staples from this large region like beef on weck , Manhattan clam chowder , the club sandwich , Buffalo wings , Philadelphia cheesesteak , the black and white cookie , shoofly pie , snapper soup , Smith Island cake , blackout cake , grape pie , milkshakes , and the egg cream , a vanilla or chocolate fountain drink with a frothy top and fizzy taste.

Midwestern cuisine today is a very eclectic and odd mix and match of foodways, covering everything from Kansas City-style barbecue to the Chicago-style hot dog , though many of its classics are very simple, hearty fare. This region was mostly untouched by European and American settlers until after the American Civil War , and excepting Missouri and the heavily forested states near the Great Lakes, was mainly populated by nomadic tribes like the Sioux , Osage , Arapaho , and Cheyenne.

As with most other American Indians tribes, these tribes consumed the Three Sisters of beans, maize, and squash, but also for thousands of years followed the herds of bison , hunting them on foot and later on horseback, typically using bow and arrow. There are buffalo jumps dating back nearly 10, years and several photographs and written accounts of trappers and homesteaders attesting to their dependence on the buffalo and to a lesser degree elk.

After nearly wiping out elk and bison, this region has taken to raising bison alongside cattle for their meat and at an enormous profit, making them into burgers and steaks. This region today comprises the states near the Great Lakes and also the Great Plains ; much of it is prairie with a very flat terrain where the blue sky meets a neverending horizon.

Winters are bitterly cold, windy, and wet. Often that means harsh blizzards especially near the Great Lakes where Arctic winds blow off of Canada, where ice on rivers and lakes freezes thick enough for ice hockey , and for ice fishing for pike , walleye and panfish to be ubiquitous. In Minnesota , Wisconsin , and Michigan , they often become part of the local fish fry. Population density is extremely low away from the Great Lakes and small towns dominated by enormous farms are the rule, larger cities being the exception.

Detroit , Cleveland , St. Paul dominate the landscape in wealth and size, owing to their ties with manufacturing, finance, transportation, and meatpacking. Smaller places like Omaha , Tulsa , and Kansas City are the local capitals, but the king is Chicago , third-largest city in the country, on the shores of Lake Michigan.

Non-American Indian settlement began in Illinois , Minnesota , Wisconsin , Ohio , Indiana , and Michigan earlier than anywhere else in the region, and thus the food available here ranges from the sublime to the bizarre. As with all of the Midwest, the primary meats here are beef and poultry, since the Midwest has been raising turkeys , chickens , and geese for over years. Chickens have been common for so long that the Midwest has several native breeds that are prized for both backyard farming and for farmer’s markets, such as the Buckeye and Wyandotte.

One, Billina, appears as a character in the second book of the Oz series by L. Frank Baum. Favorite fruits of the region include some native plants inherited from Native American tribes like the pawpaw , and American persimmons are also highly favored. As in the American South, pawpaws are the region’s largest native fruit, about the size of a mango, often found growing wild come September; they are made into preserves and cakes and command quite a price at farmer’s markets in Chicago.

Other crops inherited from the Native Americans include wild rice , which grows on the banks of lakes and is a local favorite for fancy meals and today often used in stuffing for Thanksgiving. Typical fruits of the region are cold-weather crops.

Once it was thought that its winters were too harsh for apples, but a breeder in Minnesota produced the Wealthy apple and it became the third-most productive region for apple growing in the land, with local varieties comprising Wolf River , Enterprise, Melrose , Paula Red , Rome Beauty , Honeycrisp , and the Red Delicious.

Cherries are important to Michigan and Wisconsin grows many cranberries , a legacy of earlyth-century emigration of New England farmers. Crabapple jelly is a favorite condiment of the region. The influence of German, Scandinavian, and Slavic peoples on the northern portion of the region is very strong; many emigrated to Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, and Illinois in the 19th century to take advantage of jobs in the meatpacking business as well as being homesteaders and tradesmen.

Bratwurst is a very common sausage eaten at tailgate parties for the Green Bay Packers , Chicago Bears , or Detroit Lions , often served boiled in lager beer with sauerkraut , different than many of the recipes currently found in Germany.

Polish sausage, in particular a locally invented type of kielbasa , is essential for sporting events in Chicago: Chicago today has approximately , Polish speakers and has had a similar population for over years. When Poles came to Chicago and surrounding cities from Europe, they brought with them long ropes of kielbasa, cabbage rolls, and pierogis.

Poles that left Poland after the fall of the Berlin Wall and descendants of earlier immigrants still make them, and they remain common in local diners and delis. Today alongside the pierogi, the sausage is served on a long roll with mustard like a hot dog or as a Maxwell Street Polish , a sandwich with caramelized onions. In Cleveland, the same sausage is served in the form of the Polish boy , a sandwich made of french fries, spicy barbecue sauce, and coleslaw. Unlike cities in the East where the hot dog alone is traditional, fans of the Cleveland Indians , Detroit Tigers , Chicago Cubs , and Milwaukee Brewers favor two or three different kinds of sausage sold in the pushcarts outside the stadium.

The hot dogs themselves tend to follow the Chicago style , loaded with mustard, and pickled vegetables. In Cincinnati, where the Cincinnati Reds play, there is a competitor in Cincinnati chili. Invented by Macedonian immigrants, it includes spaghetti as its base, chili with a Mediterranean-inspired spice mix, and cheddar cheese; the chili itself is often a topping for local hot dogs at games.

In the Midwest and especially Minnesota, [] the tradition of the church potluck is a gathering where local foods reign, and has been since the era of the frontier; pioneers often needed to pool resources to have a celebration in the 19th century and that simply never changed. Nowhere is this more clear than with the hotdish , a type of casserole believed to have derived from a Norwegian recipe, it is usually topped with potatoes or tater tots.

Next to that is the booyah , a thick soup made of meat, vegetables, and seasonings that is meant to simmer on the stove for up to two days. Lefse , traditionally a Scandinavian flatbread, has been handed down to descendants for over a hundred years and is common on the table. Behind that is venison , a popular meat around the Great Lakes and often eaten as steaks, sandwiches, and crown roasts for special events.

Last on the table are the dessert bars and brownies , created originally in in Chicago, now a global food and international favorite. Further South, barbecue has its own style in places in Kansas and St. Louis different from the South and American West.

Kansas City and St. Louis were and are important hubs for the railroad that connected the plains with the Great Lakes and cities farther east, like Philadelphia. At the turn of the 19th century, the St. Louis area, Omaha, and Kansas City had huge stockyards, waystations for cattle and pigs on their way East to the cities of the coast and North to the Great Lakes.

Louis-style barbecue favors a heavy emphasis on a sticky sweet barbecue sauce. Its standbys include the pork steak , a cut taken from the shoulder of the pig, grilled then slowly stewed in a pan over charcoal; crispy snoots, a cut from the cheek and nose of the pig that is fried up like cracklins and eaten dipped in sauce; pork spare ribs ; and a mix of either beer-boiled bratwurst or grilled Italian sausage, flavored with fennel.

Dessert is usually something like gooey butter cake , invented in the city in the s. Kansas City-style barbecue uses several different kinds of meat, more than most styles of American barbecue—turkey, mutton, pork, and beef to name a few—but is distinct from St.

Louis in that the barbecue sauce adds molasses in with the tomato-based recipe and typically has a more tart taste. Traditionally, Kansas City uses a low-and-slow method of smoking the meat in addition to just stewing it in the sauce.

It also favors using hickory wood for smoking and continual watering or layering of the sauce while cooking to form a glaze; with burnt ends this step is necessary to create the “bark” or charred outer layer of the brisket. When referring to the American South as a region, typically it should indicate Southern Maryland and the states that were once part of the Old Confederacy , with the dividing line between the East and West jackknifing about miles west of Dallas, Texas , and mostly south of the old Mason—Dixon line.

The Florida Panhandle is usually considered part of the South, but the Florida peninsula especially its lower half is not. These states are much more closely tied to each other and have been part of U. This section of the country has some of the oldest known U.

Native American influences are still quite visible in the use of cornmeal as an essential staple [] and found in the Southern predilection for hunting wild game, in particular wild turkey , deer , woodcock , and various kinds of waterfowl ; for example, coastal North Carolina is a place where hunters will seek tundra swan as a part of Christmas dinner; the original English and Scottish settlers would have rejoiced at this revelation owing to the fact that such was banned among the commoner class in what is now the United Kingdom, and naturally, their descendants have not forgotten.

Native Americans also consumed turtles and catfish, specifically the snapping turtle , the alligator snapping turtle , and blue catfish. Catfish are often caught with one’s bare hands , gutted, breaded, and fried to make a Southern variation on English fish and chips and turtles are turned into stews and soups.

Native American tribes of the region such as the Cherokee or Choctaw often cultivated or gathered local plants like pawpaw , maypop and several sorts of squashes and corn as food. Maize is to this day found in dishes for breakfast, lunch and dinner in the form of grits , hoecakes , baked cornbread , and spoonbread , and nuts like the hickory , black walnut and pecan are commonly included in desserts and pastries as varied as mince pies , pecan pie , pecan rolls and honey buns both are types of sticky bun , and quick breads , which were themselves invented in the South during the American Civil War.

Peaches have been grown in this region since the 17th century and are a staple crop as well as a favorite fruit, with peach cobbler being a signature dessert. European influence began soon after the settlement of Jamestown in and the earliest recipes emerged by the end of the 17th century. Specific influences from Europe were quite varied, and they remain traditional and essential to the modern cookery overall.

German speakers often settled in the Piedmont on small farms from the coast, and invented an American delicacy that is now nationally beloved, apple butter , based on their recipe for apfelkraut , and later they introduced red cabbage and rye. From the British Isles, an enormous amount of influence was bestowed upon the South, specifically foodways from 17th- and 18th-century Ulster , the borderlands between England and Scotland, the Scottish Highlands , portions of Wales , the West Midlands , the West Country , Black Country and Southern England.

Often ships’ manifests show their belongings nearly always included cookpots or bakestones and seed stock for plants like peaches , plums , and apples to grow orchards which they planted in their hundreds. Each group brought foods and ideas from their respective regions. In time they came up with a method for distilling a corn mash with added sugar and aging in charred barrels made of select hardwoods, which created a whiskey with a high proof.

This gave birth to American whiskey and Kentucky bourbon , and its cousins moonshine and Everclear. Closer to the coast, 18th-century recipes for English trifle turned into tipsy cakes , replacing the sherry with whiskey and their recipe for pound cake , brought to the South around the same time, still works with American baking units: 1 pound sugar, one pound eggs, one pound butter, one pound flour.

For most Southerners in the antebellum period , corn and pork were staples of the diet.


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Cutter, Dan, Leslie and Willie had to bake a three-layer red velvet cake. Willie and Leslie advanced leaving Cutter and Dan in the bottom two. July 21, Mystery Box Challenge: The contestants are tasked with creating a dish using Alaskan king salmon in sixty minutes.

The top three dishes were Christian’s, Courtney’s, and Elizabeth’s. Christian is named the winner of the challenge. Christian also get to choose which contestant will only have thirty minutes to cook their dish; he chooses Courtney. The judges named the dishes by Elizabeth and Ahran the best, making them team captains for the next team challenge. Cutter and Elise were named the bottom two. July 28, Team Challenge: The top twelve have to create romantic dinners for seventeen couples, including Gordon and his wife Tana.

Christine and Leslie were named for the bottom. August 4, Mystery Box Challenge : The judges provided the remaining home cooks with two Mystery Boxes: one containing everyday ingredients, and another containing more fancy high-end version of the same ingredients, and the chefs were allowed to pick which box they would use to make their dish.

The top three consisted of Elizabeth’s, Victoria’s, and Leslie’s. Leslie’s dish won the challenge. Leslie also had the advantage of removing one chef’s pasta machine and make them use a rolling pin to make their pasta; he chose Daniel.

August 11, Team Challenge: : The top ten arrive at a football stadium. Jaimee gets to pick first, but Gordon tells her that she will instead be picking Courtney’s team and vice versa.

The teams must create two dishes of a turkey burger and fish tacos to be served in a concession stand to hundreds of people attending the football game. The judges also save Christian. Ahran, Leslie, and Victoria have one hour to make a ceviche, a prawn tempura, and stuffed prawns, being told that two of them will be eliminated. August 18, The objective was to take a cut of chicken and create a dish with it. Cutter and Willie got the breast, Courtney and Christian got the thigh, Daniel and Jaimee got the wings, and Elizabeth and Leslie got the oysters.

Elizabeth and Leslie had the best dish. Christian and Courtney also advanced. All three tests had eggs as the main ingredient, and the first one required the four contestants to poach an egg. Willie advanced. Safe: Willie Mike Pressure Test Part 2 : This part of the test required the contestants to each make an egg yolk ravioli.

Cutter managed to make the best ravioli of the three, saving him from elimination. Eliminated: Daniel McGuffey. August 25, The best three dishes were Christian’s, Leslie’s, and Courtney’s. Courtney’s dish was declared the winner. The teams would be required to prepare five dim sum dishes. Courtney got to pick the teams. Jaimee and Leslie were deemed the winners and sent to safety first. Cutter and Elizabeth were also safe. September 1, Team Challenge: The top six will prepare dinner at a restaurant under the supervision of Gordon and Graham, with Gordon expediting.

The following morning, the Red Team were named winners. Courtney had the best dish. September 8, Mystery Box Challenge: In this challenge, the top five met their loved ones, and were then asked to create and elevate their loved ones’ favorite dish. Courtney’s, Christian’s, and Elizabeth’s were named the top three dishes, and Elizabeth won. Elizabeth gave buffalo testicles to Courtney, veal brains to Christian, lamb tongue to Leslie and ox heart to Cutter.

Courtney’s dish was the winner. Cutter was also deemed safe. Team Challenge: The final four cooks were divided into two pairs. Each pair had to choose a box of ingredients from one of their home states.

Courtney and Elizabeth were narrowly judged as the winners, leaving Cutter and Leslie going head to head in the pressure test. The challenge was to replicate all three dishes in ninety minutes, with each judge evaluating who did a better job of replicating it. Leslie defeated Cutter by two dishes to one, eliminating him and advancing to the final three. Eliminated: Cutter Brewer.

September 15, Individual Challenge: Gordon informed the final three that their final challenge would consist of creating a dish for 50 chefs representing the 50 states in only 90 minutes to secure a spot in the final.

The cook with the best dish would directly advance to the final, and the bottom two would compete in the season’s final Pressure Test. Six of the seven prior eliminated cooks returned to help out the finalists. Elizabeth won with 39 votes out of 50, advancing to the final two. The judges deemed Courtney to have the better cakes, advancing her to the final two and eliminating Leslie. Eliminated: Leslie Gilliams. Appetizer: Courtney made a crispy pig’s ear with dandelion and fennel salad.

Elizabeth made a grilled octopus with chickpea and chorizo salad. Dessert: Courtney made a cherry meringue with salted chocolate and almonds. It was completed in , about two years behind schedule. The construction expenses have been cut nearly in half for the projects now in the pipeline, Smith said.

Smith and Gould—and other observers—will tell you that Crescent Dunes, in its first two years, has been plagued by problems. The biggest problem by far at Crescent Dunes was a leak in the hot salt storage tank discovered in late Smith explains that a giant ring, resting on pylons on the bottom of the tank, distributes the molten salt as it comes down from the receiver.

While the pylons were supposed to be welded to the floor, the ring itself was designed to move as changes in temperature cause expansion or contraction.

Instead, due to a construction error, it was all welded together, and temperature changes caused the bottom of the tank to buckle and leak. Leaking molten salt is not particularly dangerous. When it hit the gravel bed under the tank and immediately cooled, it turned to—salt.

Still, the shutdown lasted months, and the plant only got back on the grid in July. Crescent Dunes is supposed to be able to generate some , MWh of electricity per year, the equivalent of operating about 12 hours a day. Smith argues that the facility is running well now and will meet that target. Several different approaches to CSP have been pursued over the years. Most CSP projects are in the U. The technology most commonly deployed is parabolic trough, a system that uses curved mirrors that move on a single axis to track the sun.

Sunlight is concentrated on a pipe filled with oil at the focal point of the parabolic mirror. The oil, which can reach around degrees Fahrenheit, is used to make steam to run a turbine. This process is less efficient than storage using a CSP tower, however, because of the lower temperatures. Parabolic trough projects can be appropriate in some locations, according to Sergio Relloso of the solar business unit at Sener, the Spanish engineering company.

Sener has built more than two dozen CSP trough projects. Right now, the company is constructing two plants in Ouarzazate, Morocco. The power price for the output of the two Moroccan plants is very close, Relloso said.

The other significant type of CSP plant uses a central tower and heliostats to heat steam instead of salt. These plants look similar to Crescent Dunes, but there is no storage; the steam has to be used in the turbine immediately.

The developer of the Ivanpah project, BrightSource Energy, said in an email that its technology, centered on solar field design and heliostat optimization, can also be applied to molten salt plants. The company has projects with molten salt storage in development in China.

SolarReserve has always pitched storage as its edge. Smith said utility officials and policymakers would respond that storage was important, that they wanted more. Renewable portfolio standards and other legislative and regulatory requirements pushed utilities to add wind and solar power but provided little incentive to favor generation that would run when the grid most needed the electricity. Now, the conversation about what the grid really needs seems to have begun in earnest, Smith said.

If the shift to cleaner, carbon-free power sources is to continue, California, and other systems, will need clean resources that can be dispatched to meet peak demand and to help keep the grid stable.

Mehos said developers such as SolarReserve still need to show that CSP molten salt towers can be reliable and deliver power at the promised prices. In addition to the Australian project at about 6 cents, SolarReserve has bid to sell power from a project in the Atacama Desert in Chile at close to 5 cents a kilowatt-hour. The Chilean project represents the lowest price yet for the output of a CSP project in part because the sunlight there is even stronger than it is in Nevada or South Australia.

The 10 additional plants that SolarReserve hopes to someday build in the Nevada desert would be similar to Crescent Dunes but larger—each with 10 hours of storage, for 2, MW of total capacity and 7 million MWh of output per year.

The project would stretch north from the Crescent Dunes site, and the company has filed for land permits from the federal Bureau of Land Management. Bayda Malak A. Satin Doll A. Tabasco A. Conclusion BHR Ms. Conclusion mare BHR Ms. Strikette Rich D. Contacio dp. Cosmic Jive dp. Deal Me In dp. Dream On Valentine dp. Duchess dp. Fleur dp. Kallista dp. Modern Alchemist dp. Pride’s Masterpiece Dr. Daark Starr F. Slick Willie F. Titanic F. Hershey Herzbube He’s All That! I Dun It! Chocolate Muhlan Lt.

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